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Peer-Reviewed Publications:

  1. Smith, J., C. Schroeder, K.M. Smits, J. Lucena, O.R. Baena. 2023. Pollution, obligation and care: Perspectives from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and farming in rural Colombia, Tapuya: Latin American Sci., Tech., Soc.,
  2. Schwartz, M., Smits, K., & Phelan, T. 2023. Quantifying mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining for the Minamata Convention on Mercury’s national action plans: Approaches and policy implications. Environmental Science & Policy, 141, 1-10.
  3. Gibson, C.A., J. M. Smith, K. M. Smits, J. Lucena, O. J. Restrepo Baena. 2023. Rapid Assessment Procedure as a Tool for Front-End Stakeholder Needs Analysis in Engineering Projects, IEEE Open Journal of Systems Eng., DOI: 10.1109/OJSE.2023.3275379
  4. Schwartz, M., Smits, K., Smith, J., Phelan, T., & O’Brien, R. 2022. Teaching Students to Incorporate Community Perspective into Environmental Engineering Problem Definition through Iterative Conceptual Site Models. In 2022 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.
  5. Smits, K., Schwartz, M., & Steadman, N. 2022. Promoting STEM Interest in Middle School Girls through Strategic Engagement with College Student Mentors. In 2022 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.
  6. Tian, S., N. Riddick, Y. Cho, C.S. Bell, D.J. Zimmerle, K.M Smits. 2022. Investigating detection probability of mobile survey solutions for natural gas pipeline leaks under different atmospheric conditions.Environmental Pollution.
  7. Cho, Y., K.M. Smits, N.L. Steadman, B.A.Ulrich, C.S.Bell, D.J. Zimmerle, 2022, A closer look at underground natural gas pipeline leaks across the United States, Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene,
  8. Abeysinghe, A.M.S.N., M.M.T. Lakshani, D.H.N. Amarasinghe, Y. Li, T.K.K.C. Deepagoda, W. Fu, J. Fan, T. Yang, X. Ma, T. Clough, B. Emberling, K.M. Smits, 2022. Soil-Gas Diffusivity-Based Characterization of Variably Saturated Agricultural Topsoils. Water, 14, 2900.
  9. Tian, S., K.M. Smits, Y. Cho, S.N. Riddick, D.J. Zimmerle, A. Duggan. 2022. Estimating methane emissions from underground natural gas pipelines using an atmospheric dispersion-based method. Elem Sci Anthr 9.
  10. Smith, J. M., J. Lucena, A. Rivera, T. Phelan, K. Smits, and R. Bullock, 2021, Developing global sociotechnical competency through Humanitarian Engineering: A comparison of in-person and virtual international project experiences, Journal of International Engineering Education, 3(1), doi:
  11. Cho, Y., K.M.Smits, S.N. Riddick, D.J. Zimmerle, 2022, Calibration and field deployment of low-cost sensor network to monitor underground pipeline leakage. Sensors Actuators B: Chemical,
  12. Riddick, S.N., C. Bell, A. Duggan, T. Vaughn, K.M. Smits, Y. Cho, K. Bennett, D.J. Zimmerle, 2021, Modelling temporal variability in the surface expression above a methane leak: The ESCAPE model, Elementa,
  13. Velásquez, J.R., M. Schwartz, L.M. Phipps, O.J. Restrepo-Baena, J. Lucena, K.M. Smits, 2021, A review of the environmental and health implications of recycling mine tailings for construction purposes in developing communities, Extractive Industries & Society J.,
  14. Shanujah, M., T.K.K. Chamindu Deepagoda, A.K. Karunarathna, M.C.M. Nasvi, V. Shreedharan, G.L.S. Babu, K.M. Smits, 2021, Gas diffusivity-based characterization of aggregated soils linking to methane migration in shallow subsurface, Vadose Zone J., DOI: 10.1002/vzj2.20135
  15. O’Brien, R., M. Smits, N. Smith, D. Crouse, T. Phelan,  2021, Integrating scientific and local knowledge into pollution remediation planning: An iterative conceptual site model framework. Environmental Development, 40, 100675.
  16. Flury, M., V. Lakshmi, Vanderborght, K.M. Smits, Editorial: 20 Years of Vadose Zone Journal, DOI: 10.1002/vzj2.20141.
  17. Gao, G., M. Mitton, C. Bell, D. Zimmerle, T.K.K. Chamindu Deepagoda, A. Hecobian, K.M. Smits. 2021. Study of methane migration in the shallow subsurface from a gas pipe leak. Elem Sci Anth, 9: 1. DOI:
  18. Gao, B., N. Coltman, J. Farnsworth, R. Helmig, K.M. Smits. 2021. Determination of vapor and momentum roughness lengths above an undulating soil surface based on PIV-measured velocity profiles, Water Resour. Res.,
  19. Schwartz, M., K.M. Smits, J. Smith, T. J. Phelan, O. J. Restrepo. 2021. Incorporating “Positive Deviance” into Comprehensive Remediation Projects: A Case Study from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Colombia, Env Sci & Policy,
  20. Schwartz, M., N. Smith, T. Phelan, K.M. Smits. 2021, How lessons from an evolving comprehensive approach for water and sanitation can improve artisanal and small-scale mining environmental initiatives. Journal of Cleaner Production, 282, 124457.
  21. Smits, K.M., and J. M. Smith. 2021. Book Review: Review of Vital Decomposition: Soil Practitioners and Life Politics, Vadose Zone J., DOI: 10.1002/vzj2.20116.
  22. He, H., D. He, J. Jin, K.M. Smits, M. Dyck, Q. Wu, B. Si and J. Lv. 2020. Room for improvement: A review and evaluation of 24 soil thermal conductivity parameterization schemes commonly used in land surface models, Earth Science Reviews,
  23. Jayarathne, J. R. R. N., K. K Chamindu Deepagoda, T. J. Clough, S. Thomas, B. Elberling, and K. M. Smits, 2020. Effect of aggregate size distribution on soil moisture, soil-gas diffusivity, and N2O emissions in a pasture soil, Geoderma,
  24. Cho, Y., Ulrich, D. Zimmerle, K.M.Smits, 2020. Novel dimensionless surface concentration number approach for estimation of leak rates from underground natural gas pipelines, Env. Pollution,
  25. Li, Z., J. Vanderborght, K.M. Smits, 2020, The effect of the top soil layer on moisture and evaporation dynamics, Vadose Zone J., DOI: 10.1002/vzj2.20049.
  26. Shanujah, M., T.K.K. Chamindu Deepagoda, A.K. Karunarathna, M.C.M. Nasvi, V. Shreedharan, G.L.S. Babu, K.M. Smits and C.M. Oldenburg, 2020, Effects of “soil like” particle size on gas transport and water retention properties in aged municipal solid waste from a Sri Lankan open dumpsite. Soil Sci. Society of Amer., DOI: 10.1002/saj2.20100.
  27. Bahlman, L., K.M. Smits, R. Helmig, I. Neuweiler, 2020, Transport of gas components across the soil-atmosphere interface influenced by wind conditions: A study with laboratory experiments and coupled subsurface-free flow modelling, Water Resour. Res.., DOI:10.1029/2020WR027600
  28. Gao, B., J. Farnsworth, K.M. Smits, 2020, Evaporation from undulating soil surfaces under turbulent airflow through numerical and experimental approaches, Vadose Zone J., DOI:10.1002/vzj2.20038.
  29. Jayarathne, J.R.R.N., T.K.K. Chamindu Deepagoda, T.J. Clough, M.C.M. Nasvi, S. Thomas, B. Elberling, K.M. Smits, 2020. Gas-diffusivity based characterization of aggregated agricultural soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., DOI: 10.1002/saj2.20033.
  30. O’Brien, R., T. Phelan, N. Smith, K.M. Smits, 2020. Remediation in developing countries: A review of previously implemented projects and analysis of stakeholder participation efforts. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, DOI: 1080/10643389.2020.1755203.
  31. Smits, K.M., L. McDonald, N.M. Smith, F. Gonzalez, J. Lucena, G. Martinez, O.J. Restrepo, S. Rosas, 2020, Voces Mineras: Clarifying the future of artisanal and small-scale mining collaborations. Extractive Industries & Society J., doi:10.1016/j.exis.2019.12.003.
  32. Regnery, J., D. Li, J. Lee, K.M. Smits and J. O. Sharp. 2020. Hydrogeochemical and microbiological effects of simulated recharge and drying within a 2D meso-scale aquifer, Chemosphere,
  33. Schwartz, M., Z. Li, T. Sakaki, A. Moradi, K.M. Smits. 2019. Accounting for temperature effects on the performance of soil moisture sensors in sandy soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., doi: 10.2136/sssaj2019.05.0161.
  34. Li, Z., J. Vanderborght, K.M.Smits, 2019, Evaluation of model concepts to describe water transport in shallow subsurface soil and across the soil–air interface, Trans. Porous Media, doi:10.1007/s11242-018-1144-9.
  35. Ulrich, B.A., M. Mitton, E. Lachenmeyer, A. Hecobian, D. Zimmerle, K.M. Smits. 2019. Natural gas emission from underground pipelines and implications for leak detection. Env. Sci. Tech. Lett.,
  36. Gao, B., H. Davarzani, R. Helmig, & K.M. Smits, 2018. Experimental and numerical study of evaporation from wavy surfaces by coupling free flow and porous media flow. Water Resources Research, 54.
  37. Moradi, A., J. Sharp, K.M. Smits, 2018, Coupled thermally-enhanced bioremediation and renewable energy storage system, Water, 10, 1288; doi:10.3390/w10101288.
  38. Chamindu Deepagoda, T.K.K.,K.M. Smits, R.R.N. Jayarathne, B. M. Wallen, and T.J. Clough, 2018, Characterization of grain-size distribution, thermal conductivity, and gas diffusivity in variably saturated binary sand mixtures, Vadose Zone J., doi:10.2136/vzj2018.01.0026
  39. Baser, T., Y. Dong, A. Moradi, N. Lu, K.M. Smits, S. Ge, D.M. Tartakovsky and J.S. McCartney. 2018. Role of nonequilibrium water vapor diffusion in thermal energy storage systems in the vadose zone, Geotech Geoenv. Eng., 144(7): DOI: 04018038.
  40. Deepagoda, T.K.K., M. Mitton, and K.M. Smits. 2017. Effect of varying atmospheric conditions on methane boundary-layer development in a free flow domain interfaced with a porous media domain, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. & Tech., DOI: 1002/ghg.1743.
  41. Regnery, J., Z.W. Drumheller, J. Lee, J.E. Drewes, J.E. McCray, T.H. Illangasekare, K.M. Smits. 2017. Trace organic chemical attenuation during managed aquifer recharge: Insights from a variably saturated 2D tank experiment. Hydrology, 548, 641–651, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.03.038.
  42. Vanderborght, J., T. Fetzer, K. Mosthaf, K.M. Smits, and R. Helmig. 2017. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface – Part 1: Theory and different model concepts. Water Res. Res., DOI: 10.1002/2016WR019982.
  43. Fetzer, T., J. Vanderborght, K. Mosthaf, K.M. Smits, and R. Helmig. 2017. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface – Part 2: Numerical analysis. Water Res. Res., DOI:10.1002/2016WR019983.
  44. Drumheller, Z.W., K.M. Smits, T.H. Illangasekare, J. Regnery, J. Lee, and P. Kitanidis. 2017. Optimal decision making algorithm for managed aquifer recharge and recovery operation using near real-time data: Benchtop scale laboratory demonstration. Ground Water Monitoring Remed., DOI:10.1111/gwmr.12198.
  45. Deepagoda, C. T.K.K., K.M. Smits, and C.M. Oldenburg. 2016. Effect of subsurface soil moisture variability and atmospheric conditions on methane gas migration in shallow subsurface. J. Greenhouse Gas. 55, 105-117. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.10.016
  46. Moradi, A., K.M. Smits, N. Lu, J. McCartney. 2016. Heat transfer in unsaturated soils with application to borehole thermal energy storage. Vadose Zone J., 15:10. DOI:10.2136/vzj2016.03.0027
  47. Smits, K.M., E. Kirby, W.J. Massman, and L.S. Baggett. 2016. Experimental and modeling study of forest fire effect on soil thermal conductivity. Pedosphere, 26(4): 462–473, DOI:10.1016/S1002-0160(15)60057-1.
  48. Wallen, B., K.M. Smits, T. Sakaki, S. Howington, Chamindu Deepagoda T.K.K. 2016. Thermal conductivity of binary sand mixtures evaluated through full water content range. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 80:3, 592-603, DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2015.11.0408.
  49. Deepagoda, T.K.K., K. M. Smits, J. Ramirez, and P. Moldrup. 2016. Characterization of thermal, hydraulic, and gas diffusion properties in variably saturated sand grades. Vadose Zone J., 15:4, DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.07.0097
  50. Fetzer, T., K.M. Smits, R. Helmig. 2016. Effect of turbulence and roughness on coupled porous-medium/free flow exchange processes, Trans.Porous Media, 114:2, 395–424, DOI 10.1007/s11242-016-0654-6.
  51. Pártl, O., Beneš, M., Frolkovič, P., Illangasekare, T., Smits, K.M., 2016. Numerical modeling of non-isothermal gas flow and NAPL vapor transport in soil, Comp. Phys. Comm., 202, 175–187, DOI:10.1016/j.cpc.2016.01.011.
  52. Phelan, T.J., L.M. Abriola, J. Gibson, K.M. Smits, and J.A. Christ. 2015. Development and application of screening model for evaluating bioenhanced dissolution in DNAPL source zones Cont Hydrol., 183, 1-15, DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.10.001.
  53. Trautz, A.C., K.M. Smits, A. Cihan. 2015. Continuum scale investigation of evaporation from bare soil under different boundary and initial conditions: An evaluation of non-equilibrium phase change. Water Resour. Res., 51:9, 7630-7648, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016504.
  54. Moradi, A, K.M. Smits, J. Massey, A. Cihan and J. McCartney. 2015. Impact of coupled heat transfer and water flow on soil borehole thermal energy storage (SBTES) systems: Experimental and modeling investigation Geothermics, DOI:10.1016/j.geothermics.2015.05.007.
  55. Sakaki, T. and K. M. Smits. 2015. Water retention characteristics and pore structure of binary mixtures, Vadose Zone J., 14:2, DOI:10.2136/vzj2014.06.0065.
  56. Smits, K., V. Eagen, and A.Trautz. 2015. Exploring the effects of atmospheric forcings on evaporation: experimental integration of the atmospheric boundary layer and shallow subsurface. Vis. Exp. (100), e52704, DOI:10.3791/52704.
  57. Davarzani, H., K.M. Smits, R. Tolene and T.H. Illangasekare. 2014. Study of the effect of wind speed on evaporation from soil through integrated modeling of atmospheric boundary layer and shallow subsurface. Water Resour. Res., 50:1, 661-680, DOI:10.1002/2013WR013952.
  58. Petri, B., T.H. Illangasekare, C. Sauck, T. Sakaki, K.M. Smits, R. Fučík, and J. Christ. 2014. ­­­­­­Effect of nonaqueous phase liquid source morphology on mass transfer in the vadose zone: Experimental and modeling study. Groundwater, 53:5, 685-698, DOI: 10.1111/gwat.12284.
  59. Dong, Y., N. Lu, A. Wayllace, K.M. Smits. 2014. Measurement of thermal conductivity function of unsaturated soil by using a transient water release and imbibition method. Geotechnical Testing J., 37:6, 980-990, DOI: 10.1520/GTJ20140046.
  60. Trautz, A., K.M. Smits, P. Schulte, and T.H. Illangasekare. 2013. Sensible heat balance and heat-pulse methods: Applicability to soil-water evaporation. Vadose Zone J., 13, DOI:10.2136/vzj2012.0215.
  61. Smits, K.M., A. Cihan, T. Sakaki, S.E. Howington, J.F. Peters, and T. H. Illangasekare. 2013. Experimental and modeling investigation of soil moisture and thermal behavior in the vicinity of buried objects. IEEE Trans. in Geosci. Remote Sens., 51:5, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2214485.
  62. Smits, K.M., T. Sakaki, S.E. Howington, J. F. Peters and T.H. Illangasekare. 2013. Temperature dependence of thermal properties of sands over a wide range of temperatures [30-70oC], Vadose Zone J., 12:1, DOI:10.2136/vzj2012.0033.
  63. Smits, K.M., A. Cihan, V. Ngo, T. Sakaki, and T.H. Illangasekare. 2012. An evaluation of models of bare soil evaporation formulated with  different land surface boundary conditions and assumptions.  Water Resour. Res., 48:12, DOI: 1029/2012WR012113.
  64. Smits, K.M., A. Cihan, V.Ngo, and T.H. Illangasekare. 2012. Reply to comment by Michael D. Novak on ‘‘Evaporation from soils under thermal boundary conditions: Experimental and modeling investigation to compare equilibrium and nonequilibrium based approaches.” Water Resour. Res., 48, DOI:10.1029/2011WR011609.
  65. Smits, K. M., A. Cihan, T. Sakaki, and T. H. Illangasekare. 2011. Evaporation from soils under thermal boundary conditions: Experimental and modeling investigation to compare equilibrium- and nonequilibrium-based approaches, Water Resour. Res., 47, W05540, DOI:10.1029/2010WR009533.
  66. Smits, K. M., T. Sakaki, A. Limsuwat, and T. H. Illangasekare. 2010. Thermal conductivity of sands under varying moisture and porosity in drainage-wetting Vadose Zone J., 9, 172-180, DOI:10.2136/vzj2009.0095.
  67. Sakaki, T., A. Limsuwat, K. M. Smits, and T. H. Illangasekare. 2008. Empirical two-point alpha mixing model for calibrating the ECH2O EC-5 soil moisture sensor in sands. Water Res. Res., 44: W00D08, DOI:10.1029/2008WR006870.
  68. Wu, M.Y., K.M. Smits, M.N. Goltz, and J.A. Christ. 2008. A screening model for injection-extraction treatment well recirculation system design. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 28:63-71, DOI: 1111/j.1745-6592.2008.00212.x
  69. Schantz, B.J, and K.M. Burke (Smits). 1998. Sustainable construction barriers and possibilities, The Military Engineer, 90:29-30.