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Finding India in the U.K

Across the Universe: The Beatles and India 

Niki Beck, Ellie Beeck, and Dylan Weeks

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Claire Harris

Clayton Rae

 

Xin  Yuan  Sydney

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BACK UP URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n34dsE9jKbI&t=1s

Food in North and South India

India’s north and south are bounded together by the Vindhya Range. One element that makes Indian cuisine unique is its diet. The diet from the south and north indicate the distinct cultural influences brought on by land expansions through fierce warfare.

Main Food:

In Northern India, wheat is the staple product. Since the Mughals ruled in India from 1426 to 1857, Northern India’s enriching food techniques stem from Mughlai cooking techniques. The Mughlai geographical cooking system kick start from Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and expand into Pakistan, the flavors are a wide array of mild to spicy.

Unlike north India, more people from south India are vegetarians. Rice, legumes, lentils, and fish are an important part of the Southern coastal Indian meals. Rice is the staple food in South India because of the soil, rain and temperature. Each of these are more conducive for the growth of rice than wheat. Puliyodarai is one of a common rice preparations in the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Karnataka. The word “Puli” in puliyodarai can be translated as “sour taste”, and people use plenty of spices and sesame oil to make this dish an entrenching flavor. Puliyodarai is often used for festive occasions in the temple and is given to God, while conducting prayers.

Drinks:

Secondly, North Indians consume less coffee than those of Southern India. Since Northern India is not known for coffee, its substitute is tea ( or otherwise known as “chai”). North east India is known as the major tea plantation and its influence expands among Himachal Pradesh in the Himalayas. The top five sister state tea plantations in India are Assam, Darjeeling, Nilgiri, Munnar and Coorg. For Instance, In Assam, the tea gardens are provided through the Brahmaputra river, one of the largest rivers in the world. The flavors In Assam have two distinct markets. One being a mature creamy leaf and the Second being a crisp, dark nuanced aroma. With each state providing its unique tea leaf flavoring, India is able to consistently be the one of the largest tea producers.

As early as the 1600s, coffee was introduced to India through the Muslim pilgrim Baba Budan, but it did not began to grow coffee as an export until 1840, a time that India was colonized by the British. Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, it is there where it is estimated there are over 250,000 coffee growers in the country. The most popular coffee is called “Indian monsooned coffee”. The meaning behind the name comes about after the coffee beans are dried, exposed to a ventilated warehouse for a salty and wet monsoon blown taste from the ocean for three to four months. This process causes the coffee beans to turn yellow or light brown, with reduced acidity, and thick mouthfeel as well as other special flavors such as nutty, spicy, and vegan.

Spices:

Although the diet structure in the north and south India are very different, the use of spices is unexpected uniform. A well-known moderate spice is the Garam masala. Garam Masala is a combination of cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, black cardamoms, bay leaves, and coriander seeds. Since this masala is a mixture of spices, it is pungent to smell. The only different is that, people in North India prefer making meat with Masala, while in South, Masala  use it to make various vegetables.

 

Works Cited

  1. “Tamarind rice-How to make Tamarind rice-Puliogare- Puliyodharai -Puliyodarai -Pulikkachal” October 19, 2014

https://www.padhuskitchen.com/2014/10/tamarind-rice-how-to-make-tamarind-rice.html

  1. “Geography of India” Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_India

  1. “History of tea in India” Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_tea_in_India

  1. “As India gains strength, so does its coffee”, Melissa Allison, published January 27, 2013

http://old.seattletimes.com/html/specialreportspages/2020216578_coffee-in-india-part-two.html

  1. “Garam masala” Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garam_masala

  1. “The dark side of the tea trade” DW Documentary, Published on Jul 3, 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7fZbMzubos

  1. “Iyengar Puliyodarai – Temple style puliyodarai”Jeyashris Kitchen, Published on Jul 31, 2016 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXSxs8Kop-4
  2. ” Travel in India | docufeel.com ” Shai Sarfati, Published on Jul 23, 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0uTzfDUX-Pc&t=993s
  3. ” Taj Mahal, Agra, India in 4K Ultra HD ” Amazing Places on Our Planet, Published on Mar 9, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=665AHTNpf2o&t=17s
  4. ” Tabla Solo – Indian Classical – Sanju Sahai ft Kirpal Singh Panesar ” SouthAsianArtsUK Published on Sep 2, 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HUl9QTgiVE
  5. ” Shiva Shambho Most Watched Bharatanatyam Dance ¦ Best of Indian Classical Dance ” IndianRaga, Published on Sep 15, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWhA3ldZcyY
  6. ” Nora Fatehi’s breathtaking performance at Miss India South 2018 ” Beauty Pageants, Published on Feb 26, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxB5_ixmQls
  7. ” New year fireworks 2019 in India Delhi INDIA GATE ” Reaction Guru Published on Dec 31, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rY6gUiwqcw0&t=418s
  8. ” Maryam Shakiba – Odissi Dance – Manglacharan Ganesh Vandana ” Maryam Shakiba, Published on Aug 7, 2014 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52bscmW8x80
  9. ” INDIAN CAMEL SAFARI INTO THE THAR DESERT 🇮🇳 RAJASTHAN TRAVEL ” JASON BILLAM TRAVEL, Published on Jan 7, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_1ScbvmX7I&t=344s
  10. ” India Travel Guide – How to Travel India! ” Noahvde, Published on Mar 11, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js4I_QIiCBA&t=12s
  11. ” Incredible India ¦ by India & You ” Antoine Janssens, Published on Mar 6, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77czO8sxABI&t=3s
  12. ” Incredible India – Director’s Cut – Travel | CNN ” Incredible India,Published on Feb 28, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wAD9uO9YAQw&t=15s
  13. ” I slept in the INDIAN DESERT ” Bernardo Bacalhau, Published on Feb 19, 2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICJE49CRerY&t=10s
  14. ” Ganesh’s Birthday Celebration – Indian Ocean With Simon Reeve – BBC ” BBC Studios, Published on Apr 26, 2014 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKumV4ZX-V8
  15. ” Christmas Carols Mashup With A Magical Indian Twist- Masterpiece By Seon Almeida ” Seon Almeida, Published on Dec 19, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FiHwtLi3maQ
  16. ” amazing street performers or busker ¦ cobra flute music played by snake charmer ” Traditional BD, Published on May 10, 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IJkx-9LXUY&t=8s

___________________________

Video Link

HIST 2390 – GARLIC AND INDIA from Porter Collett on Vimeo.

BLACK SCREEN. MUSIC. FADE IN QUOTE.

 

“If you can smell garlic, everything is alright.”

J.G. Ballard

 

FADE OUT TO BLACK

 

India’s complicated relationship with garlic stretches back thousands of years into its past.

 

Today, India is the second largest producer of the root vegetable, exporting over 405,000 metric tons in 2017.

 

Very few spices can complete with garlic’s wide range of applications in cuisine and in medicine. 

 

Garlic, or “lahasun,” has a spicy, pungent essence that adds unforgettable zest to any meal. 

 

Its wonderful flavor profile changes with its preparation

Sliced

Roasted

or ground into a paste

garlic can be found in every form in traditional indian dishes 

 

Popular dishes include tikka masala

or one of dozens of variations on biryani across india. 

 

Garlic’s uses in India extend beyond the edible. Ayurvedic physicians of classical india used it to alleviate colic pain, treat liver disorders, jaundice, parasitic infestation, and halt the progression of rheumatic diseases like arthritis. 

 

While some of these treatments may have been misinformed, modern scientists have found garlic to be a natural stimulant, diuretic, and vasodilator, leading physicians to research that confirms a number of the purported ayurvedic applications. 

 

Through a number of studies, garlic has also been proven effective against dangerous microorganisms, preventing heart disease, and even inhibiting cancer cell growth. 

 

Despite the high regard many Indians hold for garlic both medicinally and culinarily, the same cannot be said for all in the Indian subcontinent. 

 

According to an undated Ayurvedic manuscript called the Bower Manuscript, garlic was created by divine intervention.

 

When the demon king angered Lord Vishnu, his head was cut off as punishment

 

The drops of blood that soaked into the earth became bulbs of garlic. Their bodily origin prevents brahmins from eating the savory bulbs.

 

Jainism, one of the major religions with origins in India, forbids the consumption of all root vegetables, including garlic.

 

This practice reflects their belief in non-violence, which extends even to the smallest of insects hidden inside the cloves. 

 

This is contrasted with Hari Krishna tradition, which also forbids garlic, but for a very different reason.

 

Garlic, as well as onions and in some sects hot peppers, is believed to be a “warming” spice, which arouses and ignites the sexual desires, and is seen as a distraction to spiritual growth.

 

But despite this popular religious observance, the county’s love for the delicious, spicy pod endures.

 

Works Cited

 

“Why Eat Garlic?” Prevention India, Sept. 2014, p. 1. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=98271361&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

 

Gupta, Mradu. “Pharmacological Properties and Traditional Therapeutic Uses of Important Indian Spices: A Review.” International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 13, no. 5, Sept. 2010, pp. 1092–1116. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10942910902963271.

 

Rivlin, Richard S. “Historical Perspective on the Use of Garlic.” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, Mar. 2001, p. 951S–954S. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/jn/131.3.951S.

 

Rivlin, Richard S. “Is Garlic Alternative Medicine?” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, Mar. 2006, p. 713S–715S. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/jn/136.3.713S.

 

“Chapter 6: Food and Indian Doctors.” Feasts and Fasts: a History of Food in India, by Colleen Taylor. Sen, Reaktion Books Ltd, 2015.


Felipe Pacheco

VIDEO

BACK UP VIDEO

SCENE 1 (INDIAN LANDSCAPE/ PEOPLE)

-India has a population of 1.36 billion people

-India is 1.26 million sq miles

(Indian Alcohol Consumption Report 2018 – The Changing Behavior of the Market)

SCENE 2 (Shipping/ PORTS)

Today, more than ⅕ of the world’s Alcohol produced is consumed Indians

-India’s Wine industry has grown has grown 30% since 2015 and India is the 3rd largest producer in the world for whiskey

(Overview: Indian Wine Industry Which Is Set to Hit Record High Production in 2016)

SCENE 3 (ANCIENT HISTORY OF ALCOHOL)

-Soma during the Vedic period (39)

-“We have drunk the soma; we have become immortal; we have gone to the light; we have found the gods… The glorious drops that I have drunk set me free in wide space.” (39)

-Sura (different from Soma) (39)

-Made by fermenting barley or rice

Ancient alcoholic drinks different among groups, Ksatruyas drank alcoholic drinks made from grapes and sugar cane (87)

-Vaisyas drank strong fermented drinks (87)

-During the 1500’s Babur, the founder and first emperor of the Mughal Empire, would throw parties where the people would drink a cider-like alcoholic drink made from apples, pears or grapes (189)

(Sen, Colleen Taylor. Feasts and Fasts: a History of Food in India. Reaktion Books, 2015.)

SCENE 4 (PORTUGUESE/ COLONIAL HISTORY OF ALCOHOL)

-When Vasco Da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498, the Portuguese introduced Port-style wines to the region

-When the British arrived, they opened bars and pubs and served wine, beer, rum, punch, this promoting the European culture of heavy drinking

(HISTORY. “Vasco Da Gama: Portuguese Explorer – Fast Facts | History)

SCENE 5 (Modern ALCOHOL USE/PRODUCTION)

*Wine

-Today, India has over 123,000 acres of vineyards and they produce over 1 million cases of wine a year

-Today, most of India’s wine production is concentrated in the Nashik District of India, and the Nashik valley is considered the wine capital of the nation

Over 75% of the wine consumed in India is produced within the country which makes the wine industry extremely profitable because it does not have to travel very far to the consumer

-Just within the last three years, the Indian wine Industry has grown 25%

(EUIPO. “Nashik Valley: The Wine Capital of India – IPC-EUI Project (HD)

(Overview: Indian Wine Industry Which Is Set to Hit Record High Production in 2016)

*Whiskey

-The Indian Whiskey industry took off in 1948, a year after India achieved independence from Britain

-Whiskey is by far the most popular drink in India, in 2014 India consumed 1.54 billion liters of whiskey and the United States consumed only 462 million liters of whiskey

-The popularity of domestically produced whiskey is due to the fact that the majority of Indians prefer the sweeter Indian whiskey which is made with molasses, compared to the stronger Irish and other North American whiskeys

(Conversation, WhiskyCast: Cask-Strength. “WhiskyCast HD: Single Malt Whisky the Indian Way: A Visit to Amrut)

SCENE 6 (ALCOHOL HEALTH PROBLEM IN INDIA)

-The idea of moderate/social drinking only occurs in India’s moderate and wealthy classes, in the lower classes where life is more difficult, there is a significant alcohol problem,

-80% of alcohol consumption in India involves hard liquors, more than half of those who consume alcohol in India would fall into the Hazardous drinking category

-It is estimated more than 14 million people in INDIA are alcohol dependent and engage in regular binge drinking

-This problem is partly due to the government, who heavily taxes alcohol to try to discourage alcohol but this only makes the problem worse, this drives lower class people to consume ‘Hooch’, bootleg liquor which kills thousands every year

(Indian Alcohol Consumption Report 2018 – The Changing Behavior of the Market)

(“India Drinks Over Three Times More Whiskey Than Any Other Country.” Food & Wine)

 

Works Cited

Agency, CCTV Video News. “Toxic Alcohol Causes Family Tragedy in India.” YouTube, YouTube, 22 June 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Hbq7q0IkLU.

AJ+. “How Alcohol Has Overtaken Kerala, India.” YouTube, YouTube, 4 Oct. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWW_xIyrWcQ.

“Alcoholism in India.” Alcohol Rehab, alcoholrehab.com/alcoholism/alcoholism-in-india/.

Author. “Once Upon a Daru… a Brew-Story!” History of Alcohol in India | Flashback of Alcohol, www.allaboutdaru.com/history-of-alcohol-in-india.aspx.

Bohl, Winston. “Stunning Aerial Drone Footage of INDIA – 4K.” YouTube, YouTube, 24 Nov. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=19RQagzBY3M.

Conversation, WhiskyCast: Cask-Strength. “WhiskyCast HD: Single Malt Whisky the Indian Way: A Visit to Amrut.” YouTube, YouTube, 12 Apr. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-vyn04uR4E.

EUIPO. “Nashik Valley: The Wine Capital of India – IPC-EUI Project (HD).” YouTube, YouTube, 1 June 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJClphTHrN0.

Food, Crazy For Indian. “Best Street Foods in Delhi | Satisfying Video | Best Indian Street Food.” YouTube, YouTube, 10 Nov. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0DI_9rqUOc.

HISTORY. “Vasco Da Gama: Portuguese Explorer – Fast Facts | History.” YouTube, YouTube, 8 Feb. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxHf_2zTcQo.

“India Drinks Over Three Times More Whiskey Than Any Other Country.” Food & Wine, www.foodandwine.com/fwx/drink/india-drinks-over-three-times-more-whiskey-any-other-country.

India Law Offices. “Indian Wine Industry.” India Law Offices, www.indialawoffices.com/ilo_pdf/industry-reports/wineindustry.pdf.

“Indian Alcohol Consumption Report 2018 – The Changing Behavior of the Market – ResearchAndMarkets.com.” Indian Alcohol Consumption Report 2018 – The Changing Behavior of the Market – ResearchAndMarkets.com | Business Wire, 12 Nov. 2018, www.businesswire.com/news/home/20181112005505/en/Indian-Alcohol-Consumption-Report-2018—Changing.

JeffHK. “How Are Containers Loaded? | Cargo Operations on Container Ship.” YouTube, YouTube, 31 Dec. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=kj7ixi2lqF4.

News, VOA. “India’s Illegal Alcohol Is Sold Cheap, but Carries Heavy Cost.” YouTube, YouTube, 1 Feb. 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=n91hYLIkAEw.

“Overview: Indian Wine Industry Which Is Set to Hit Record High Production in 2016.” VINEX, en.vinex.market/articles/2016/05/22/overview_indian_wine_industry_which_is_set_to_hit_record_high_production_in_2016.

Sen, Colleen Taylor. Feasts and Fasts: a History of Food in India. Reaktion Books, 2015.

The Hindu BusinessLine. “The Alcohol Economy.” @Businessline, The Hindu BusinessLine, 12 Mar. 2018, www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/the-alcohol-economy/article20697419.ece1.

 

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Kent Knox

CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO

BACK UP URL: https://youtu.be/z7CvTAJsu_w

It has been called the lifeblood of India and is written about in books and poems, featured in paintings and sculpture, and revered in dance and song. 1.4 billion people rely on it. It has come to represent life, and struggle, across the Indian subcontinent.

Water.

The India monsoon is a powerful natural wonder that has shaped life for generations, bringing as much as 90% of total annual rainfall to some regions (NewsFlicks, 2017).

The monsoon rains shape everything. 70% of Indians depend directly or indirectly on farming (NewsFlicks, 2017). More than half of total employment in the country is tied to agriculture. A bad monsoon could spell disaster. Over half of the population is rural with little access to modern water distribution channels, and half of India’s land is unirrigated relying solely on rainfall and underground water (Sachs, 2018).

Urban areas draw their water and power from aquifers, dammed rivers, streams, lakes, and underground systems – all fed by the monsoon.

So, what would happen if it all STOPPED? If the monsoon patterns and timings changed, if the water it provided went away.

The water crisis across India is here. The last monsoon surplus was 2013, and 13 of the last 18 years have seen a deficit putting infrastructure and water consumption norms to the test.

The crisis is largely driven by the reduction of groundwater and has been decades in the making. Take Punjab, “the land of 5 rivers” in far north India, where almost 98% of the land is under irrigation (Today, Pumped Dry: Desperate Struggles for Water In India, 2015). Only 1/3 of the water comes from rivers and streams. The rest is from groundwater (Today, Pumped Dry: Desperate Struggles for Water In India, 2015). Groundwater has been on the decline since 1973, and is disappearing at an accelerated rate. 45 years ago locals could dig 1 to 2 feet and hit water. Today farmers can dig 60+ wells without striking water, and in some cases wells over 900 feet deep are dry (Today, Pumped Dry: Desperate Struggles for Water In India, 2015).

The sudden and drastic reduction in groundwater throughout India is causing many social, political, and societal implications, and have recently become a crisis in the cities of Chennai and New Delhi.

Chennai is dealing with its worst water crisis in history. A combination of historically poor monsoon seasons, bad water use planning, and 200+ days without rain have created a dire situation. It is estimated Chennai, along with 21 other cities, will run out of water by 2020 (Vice News, 2019). People must wait in lines for hours for the chance to get water from tankers (Today, What is The Ground Reality of Chennai’s Water Crisis, 2019). They are limited to three small buckets for an entire week. Think of it, cooking, cleaning, showering, washing clothes, brushing teeth, drinking – everything is impacted. IT firms are telling some employees to work from home so they are not responsible to provide water, hotels are turning away guests, restaurants are closing or working under abbreviated conditions (Today, What is The Ground Reality of Chennai’s Water Crisis, 2019).

In Delhi the situation is similar. Many of the 1.8M people living in the slums rely on private water tankers. They wait in lined for 4-5 hours for the chance to fill their pots (World T. , 2018). Residents use makeshift garden hoses to climb on top of the tankers, and fight with their neighbors for a spot. They do this everyday – sometimes going home empty handed.

As bad as things are, it is only forecast to get worse. Of the remaining water left, only 1/3 is safe to drink – the rest is contaminated with arsenic, iron, and uranium (World T. , 2018). Northern India will face the hardest time. It has the lowest groundwater levels in the country along with half of India’s population and farming (World T. , 2018).

Beyond the conditions that farmers and cities face, a war over water has become a real possibility.

First, it’s important to understand India and Pakistan do – not – like – each – other. Their border is the most militarized in the world (News, 2014).

The Indus Water Treaty of 1961 has historically been a stable agreement between the two nuclear capable countries, surviving three wars and multiple conflicts (TV, 2019). However recently, the issue of water has become a hot topic. The combination of rising tensions in Kashmir and a deadly 2016 attack on Indian military base, Indian PM Modi has decided to push the limits of the treaty and is considering restricting the flow of water to Pakistan. In Dec 2016, Modi said “Blood and water cannot flow simultaneously”, signaling India’s intentions (TV, 2019).

Population growth in both countries is further exacerbating the situation. The combined population of has more than tripled from 485M in 1961 when treaty was signed, to 1.5B in 2018, raising the demand for water in both countries (World T. , India-Pakistan Water dispute explained, 2019).

The water from Kashmir is extremely important to both sides, and they are willing to fight for it. 60% of Pakistan’s GDP depends on agriculture and the Indus valley has the potential to power all of India (World T. , India-Pakistan Water dispute explained, 2019).

The support for war is already there in Pakistan (News, 2014).

Should the countries go to war the likely response would be nuclear. This becomes a global issue because scientist agree that 100 nuclear weapons detonated anywhere in the world would spell the end for the planet (News, 2014). This is a very scary proposition when conventional wisdom in both countries isn’t IF war will happen, but WHEN.

The issues surrounding water in India are only becoming more complex and numerous to manage. They will need to be properly handled by farmers, city dwellers, and heads of state. No one knows what the future holds for India and its quest for more water. Our only hope is the monsoons return, the rivers flow freely, reservoirs fill, and water becomes abundant for all once again.

Bibliography

Documentary, R. (2016). H2WOE India’s Water Crisis A Warning to The World. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0hk_5Plv5U&t=657s

News, V. (2014). The Worlds Most Dangerous Border and Escape from North Korea. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Nzm2CidMpM&t=881s

NewsFlicks. (2017). Why India Needs A Good Monsoon. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dgTGrnEghk0

Sachs, G. (2018). The Long and Short of It, India and The Monsoon Effect. . Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_kYqQEJvFo&t=16s

Today, U. (2015). Pumped Dry: Desparate Struggles for Water In India. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9LcJBG2Zh0

Today, U. (2019). What is The Ground Reality of Chennai’s Water Crisis. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GTjg4pAnO4

TV, R. S. (2019). In Depth: Indus Water Treaty. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tbpiQcv-gio&t=22s

VIce News, H. (2019). Chennai’s Water Woes. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drLrAW3hTPQ

World, N. T. (2016). India and Pakistan Looming Water War. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1S5uidaOug&t=22s

World, T. (2018). Indias Water Crisis: 21 Cities to Exhaust Water Supplies by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3Vzm5M0c90&t=20s

World, T. (2019). India-Pakistan Water dispute explained. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTEp5FqgBwo&t=26s

 


 

The below is posted by Chaudhry Hameed on 7/2/’18 :

Chaudhry Hameed, Drew Stull, Eric

 

CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO

BACK UP URL: https://youtu.be/2gUbaPzGvqE

Chaudhry: By far, the most important Portuguese contribution to Indian cuisine was the so-called Columbian Exchange. The far flung trading posts of the Portuguese and Spanish empires became hubs of a global exchange of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and other plants between the Western Hemisphere and the rest of the Old World.

To India, the Portuguese introduced potatoes, chillies, okra, papayas, pineapples, cashews, peanuts, maize, sapodilla, custard apples, guavas, and tobacco.

By the mid-sixteenth century, three varieties of chilli from various parts of the New World were recognized in India and were rapidly adopted as a substitute for black pepper. Moreover, many of the new arrivals became substitutes for ingredients that were already part of the cuisine. Potatoes were a replacement for indigenous tubers and became an indispensable component of Indian food. The Sanskrit word for tubers, alu, is the word for ‘potato’ in many Indian languages.

Another New World gift was tobacco, which was introduced by the Portuguese in the Deccan in the 16th century. Akbar apparently liked it, and tobacco-smoking became popular in the royal household, despite the disapproval of religious conservatives. To this day, it is popular to add flavored tobacco to paan, a popular local snack composed of a betel nut chew.

**use clips**

Additionally, coffee had reached India by the early seventeenth century, but it was probably brought earlier than that by Arab traders.

However they were introduced, all these products, especially tomatoes, chillies, and potatoes, were assimilated to such a degree that it is now impossible to imagine indian cuisine without them  (info above taken from various excerpts from Sen book: See Bibliography)

**use Indian cuisine**

Eric: Vaghareli Makai is a spiced corn dish from India. To make this dish, one needs mustard seed, individual seeds of corn, peanuts, cilantro and sesame seed. A variety of different spices as well as other items for flavoring such as clove, chili peppers, and limes are added too. As one can tell from seeing the ingredients of this dish, this creation did not begin in India. The Columbian Exchange had a major and direct impact on the world. This occurrence did not miss out on affecting the foods of the World. Corn and peppers are two foreign elements of what sounds like a wonderful and delicious culinary masterpiece.

Tadka is a cooking technique utilized in certain types of Indian dishes. The process is essentially that of tempering. This technique makes use of ingredients by simmering them in an attempt to get them to release flavor and oils. In regards to New World foods affecting the dishes of India, one only has to turn to the tomato. This fruit, which originated in South America, is often tempered and the product that is created is used in certain Indian foods. One family of dishes that sees this take place in are curries. Curry has been a staple of food within the Indian subcontinent for centuries. The tomato brought forth new ways in which a traditional Indian culinary creation could be created and enjoyed.

Drew:

Some creations that include tomatoes and potatoes are:

Aloo Phujia

“Spicy potatoes, tomatoes and onions with an Indian kick! This is super spicy so be aware!”

Cumin-Scented Potatoes With Tomatoes (Ghurma Aloo) ghurmas are thick-sauced, long-simmered stews, spiked with dry herbs and thickened with vegetables.

POTATOES WITH GARAM MASALA AND SPICY TOMATO This is basically the same thing as the cumin-scented potatoes with tomatoes but it just has the masala taste to add a different flavor.

ALOO TAMATAR SUBZI – CURRIED POTATOES IN TOMATO SAUCE

Aloo Tamatar Sabzi is a very simple, everyday dish regularly cooked in many North Indian kitchens. Boiled potatoes are cooked in a spiced gravy of onions and tomatoes and makes a great curry with rotis and chapatis. I also make this sometimes as an accompaniment to a subtly spiced flavored rice or steamed white rice.

Potato and pea curry with tomato and coriander (aloo dum)

Aloo dum is possibly the most common vegetable curry in India. It’s almost like chips with everything here, aloo dum with everything there. It’s either easy to make or hard, depending on what you want to do with it. If I was describing it to somebody I’d just say boil potatoes, fry them with garam masala, add some tomato, chilli, turmeric and salt and it’s done; then, if you like, throw in frozen peas just before the end.

Makki di roti is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal, primarily eaten in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Like most rotis in the Indian subcontinent, it is baked on a tava.

Makki di roti means “bread of maize” in the Punjabi language. Makki di roti is yellow in color when ready, and has much less adhesive strength — which makes it difficult to handle.

Bibliography

Sen, Colleen Taylor. Feasts and Fasts: a History of Food in India. Reaktion Books, 2015.

 

Alexander Brimelow, Noah Sullivan

Video

Rice in India

Discovered and cultivate in the year 6500 BC, rice has always been a major part of the cultural fabric of India

In Hinduism, rice holds great spiritual and ritual significance as it is a staple of the Indian diet. Because of its basic life-sustaining qualities, rice is revered as a potent symbol of auspiciousness, prosperity and fertility and therefore is used extensively in Hindu rites and rituals. Rice particularly plays a significant role in some Hindu samskaras — rite-of-passage ceremonies that signify transition periods in an individual’s life and personality development — as well as in harvest festivals.

In modern times, rice has been one of India’s most important crops to be produced in the region, not only for sustaining the continually growing population but also providing a significant source of income for the national economy. In fact, behind China, India is largest producer of rice in the world. Their yearly output that they are able to manage has been over 100 million tons, and that output has continued to grow and expand with new advancements in agriculture and machinery. In both the regions of Eastern and Southern India, the major rice-growing states of West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and others  which together contribute about 72% of the total rice area and 75% of total rice production in the country.

To demonstrate the importance this production has, is represented in the 1943 Bengal Famine. Due to a number of cause including, British influence and land grabs resulted in the death of 2.1 million people. Located in the region of Bengal, an area which highly relied on its rice production as the primary source of employment and income. However even so, the British noted prior to 1947 that , between half and three quarters of the rural poor were living in a “semi-starved condition”. Due to the Second World War’s level of destruction, and the prioritization for food to be sent to the military and government led to inadequate levels of rice reserves to be stored.The situation spiraled out of control and resulted in widespread famine in the region.

In some of the states like West Bengal, Assam and Orissa two crops of rice are raised twice in a year. Around 6000 different varieties of rice in India, but ecologists estimate that we have lost tens of thousands of native varieties of rice in the last forty years or so. Even then, the diversity of Indian rice varieties is among the most in the world.

This is also reflected in the number of dishes that uses the grain so heavily. Such as the dish Puliyogare, which is often referred to as Tamarind rice, this rice dish tastes quite different from Andhra to Karnataka to Tamil Nadu. Served for festive occasions and also as a temple ‘Prasad’ in many temples in the region, the Puliyogare usually features a strong mix of spices along with tamarind and the unmistakable aroma of gingelly oil.

Another famous dish from the region is, Coconut Rice which is a mildly flavoured rice is a case in point. Rice is sautéed (after it is cooked) with an equal amount of freshly grated coconut, cashew nuts and mild spices. This dish is also served for festive occasions and tastes best with Avial or a spicy gravy.

Rice will always play an important role in India. It occupies a significant spot as both a food source and national commodity. It is one of the most important foods for the nation.

Sources:

“Bengal Famine of 1943.” Wikipedia. July 01, 2018. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengal_famine_of_1943.

 

“History of Rice Cultivation.” Ricepedia. Accessed July 02, 2018. http://ricepedia.org/culture/history-of-rice-cultivation.

 

“India.” Ricepedia. Accessed July 02, 2018. http://ricepedia.org/india.

 

“India: Rice.” Asia Society. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://asiasociety.org/korea/rice-india.

 

Leigh, Zack, Jenn, Pixie Cohen, and Connie. “Indian Style Rice Recipe.” Simply Recipes. June 25, 2018. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/indian_style_rice/.

 

“Rice.” Wikipedia. June 29, 2018. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice.

 

“Rice in India.” CropLife International. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://croplife.org/news-views/sharing-the-story/india-and-rice/.

 

“Rice Production in India.” Wikipedia. July 01, 2018. Accessed July 02, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_production_in_India.

Chaundry Hameed, Eric Hudkins, Drew Stull

The video

Chaudhry: By far, the most important Portuguese contribution to Indian cuisine was the so-called Columbian Exchange. The far flung trading posts of the Portuguese and Spanish empires became hubs of a global exchange of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and other plants between the Western Hemisphere and the rest of the Old World.

To India, the Portuguese introduced potatoes, chillies, okra, papayas, pineapples, cashews, peanuts, maize, sapodilla, custard apples, guavas, and tobacco.

By the mid-sixteenth century, three varieties of chilli from various parts of the New World were recognized in India and were rapidly adopted as a substitute for black pepper. Moreover, many of the new arrivals became substitutes for ingredients that were already part of the cuisine. Potatoes were a replacement for indigenous tubers and became an indispensable component of Indian food. The Sanskrit word for tubers, alu, is the word for ‘potato’ in many Indian languages.

Another New World gift was tobacco, which was introduced by the Portuguese in the Deccan in the 16th century. Akbar apparently liked it, and tobacco-smoking became popular in the royal household, despite the disapproval of religious conservatives. To this day, it is popular to add flavored tobacco to paan, a popular local snack composed of a betel nut chew.

**use clips**

Additionally, coffee had reached India by the early seventeenth century, but it was probably brought earlier than that by Arab traders.

 

However they were introduced, all these products, especially tomatoes, chillies, and potatoes, were assimilated to such a degree that it is now impossible to imagine indian cuisine without them  (info above taken from various excerpts from Sen book: See Bibliography)

**use Indian cuisine**

Eric: Vaghareli Makai is a spiced corn dish from India. To make this dish, one needs mustard seed, individual seeds of corn, peanuts, cilantro and sesame seed. A variety of different spices as well as other items for flavoring such as clove, chili peppers, and limes are added too. As one can tell from seeing the ingredients of this dish, this creation did not begin in India. The Columbian Exchange had a major and direct impact on the world. This occurrence did not miss out on affecting the foods of the World. Corn and peppers are two foreign elements of what sounds like a wonderful and delicious culinary masterpiece.

Tadka is a cooking technique utilized in certain types of Indian dishes. The process is essentially that of tempering. This technique makes use of ingredients by simmering them in an attempt to get them to release flavor and oils. In regards to New World foods affecting the dishes of India, one only has to turn to the tomato. This fruit, which originated in South America, is often tempered and the product that is created is used in certain Indian foods. One family of dishes that sees this take place in are curries. Curry has been a staple of food within the Indian subcontinent for centuries. The tomato brought forth new ways in which a traditional Indian culinary creation could be created and enjoyed.

 

Drew:

Some creations that include tomatoes and potatoes are:

Aloo Phujia

“Spicy potatoes, tomatoes and onions with an Indian kick! This is super spicy so be aware!”

Cumin-Scented Potatoes With Tomatoes (Ghurma Aloo) ghurmas are thick-sauced, long-simmered stews, spiked with dry herbs and thickened with vegetables.

POTATOES WITH GARAM MASALA AND SPICY TOMATO This is basically the same thing as the cumin-scented potatoes with tomatoes but it just has the masala taste to add a different flavor.

ALOO TAMATAR SUBZI – CURRIED POTATOES IN TOMATO SAUCE

Aloo Tamatar Sabzi is a very simple, everyday dish regularly cooked in many North Indian kitchens. Boiled potatoes are cooked in a spiced gravy of onions and tomatoes and makes a great curry with rotis and chapatis. I also make this sometimes as an accompaniment to a subtly spiced flavored rice or steamed white rice.

 

Potato and pea curry with tomato and coriander (aloo dum)

Aloo dum is possibly the most common vegetable curry in India. It’s almost like chips with everything here, aloo dum with everything there. It’s either easy to make or hard, depending on what you want to do with it. If I was describing it to somebody I’d just say boil potatoes, fry them with garam masala, add some tomato, chilli, turmeric and salt and it’s done; then, if you like, throw in frozen peas just before the end.

 

Makki di roti is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal, primarily eaten in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Like most rotis in the Indian subcontinent, it is baked on a tava.

Makki di roti means “bread of maize” in the Punjabi language. Makki di roti is yellow in color when ready, and has much less adhesive strength — which makes it difficult to handle.

 

Bibliography

Sen, Colleen Taylor. Feasts and Fasts: a History of Food in India. Reaktion Books, 2015.

INDIAN FUSION FOOD

 

Anglo Indian Food (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Anglo Indian Food

Indian and British cuisines have been mutually affected by each other due to the British colonial rule  from in the 19th and 20th centuries. They have been forever changed, and origins are typically lost on the people consuming these foods. While this relationship has transpired over the years with other European nations like the Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, the British have had the biggest impact on the subcontinent by far. The history behind the evolution and growing popularity of particular dishes, especially those derived from British connections is an interesting one rooted into the the age of exploration and imperialism.

 

Trade and interaction began as early as 1612. Over time the relationship between the two states grew, primarily from the development of the British East India Trading Company and eventually to the active colonization of India by the British. Originally company rule existed, until the crown took over. What is known as the British Raj began in 1858 and covered the majority of the subcontinent. One of the major reasons that the British occupied India was for accumulating resources and developing their economy (which may have hurt the Indians in the long run). While implementing important infrastructures, the British left their mark on borders and their perfect prototype of government that was far too expensive and not practical for the Indian needs and desires. In the 1940s a combination of growing nationalism, declining international and British investment, a move toward self-government with more Indian officials and the US foreign policy on ending imperialist rule, contributed to looming independence. In August of 1947, power was officially handed over to the Indian National Congress, also accompanied by the violent partition of India.

Some of the remnants of British rule include simple, but pivotal changes. These include the move from eating on floor cushions, to a dining room table. Also the use of porcelain dishes over banana leaves became popular. The British also brought with them important goods like whiskey, tea, ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves and licorice. Some of these products have become important staples to Indian cooking today!

 

The name of the British residents over the period were Anglo-Indian, which later came to characterize the foods that emerged from this time frame. Anglo-Indian food is one of the first fusion foods of the world, and could only be derived from the nearly century long occupation. One early example of this relationship is in a British cookbook, Modern Cookery for Private Families, written by Eliza Acton. Published in 1845, she takes an early look at rising and already popular dishes in Great Britain, both native and foreign. At one point she goes as far as to say that English food is “far inferior to that of nations much less advanced in civilisation.” She uses this as a motivator to add more spices, originally from India, to make British foods more exciting. Later we get this dish called “curry” which is actually not a specific name for any dish in India, but a popular commodity in Britain. Curry comes from adding traditionally Indian spices and condiments to regular British staples. While more Indian influences, rather than truly Indian foods, the British excitement for more spice in their food is seen early on.

 

One of the main products of India is tea, which has an intricate relationship with colonial British rule. India is the largest consumer of tea and the second largest producer. This is a fairly recent development, especially put into the context of the high consumption.

 

Historians have found traces of drinking tea in India as early as 750 BCE, but it was not nearly as prevalent at this time. It was not until the 18th century that the tea industry was truly introduced to India. The British brought tea cultivation practices because importing it from China was turning out to be far more expensive than they had anticipated. They were also purchasing large quantities of opium at the time, which they decided could no longer be bought in such huge amounts from China too. It was then quickly commercialized to become a major industry. The British officially took over tea production and its trade with the help of the British East India Company. In North India, by 1863, 78 plantations of tea had been placed in Kumaon, Dehra Dun, Garwal, Kangra Valley, and Kulu. Plantations were also established in South India around the 1830s, like in Nilgiri. The production turned out to be so successful that in 1853, 183.4 tons of tea were being exported each year, growing so much that in 1885, 35,274 tons were shipped out.

 

One of the types of tea that was especially popular in production was of the Assam variety. This was not originally an appreciated type, but the British found out that the original seed from China could not survive nearly as well due to excessive heats in India. After further developments, it became a successful crop in India and Assam Company of London grew out of it. This was the first joint stock tea company and was founded only a year after Assam tea arrived in London in 1838. Another type of tea was Darjeeling, which was immediately a successful variety in India. By 1874, over 100 plantations had been started for this tea.

 

Even after the departure of the British in 1947, the tea cultivation industry has continued to thrive. Some statistics account for a 250% increase in production, with most of it in North India. Tea may have come as a colonial staple, but quickly turned into an Indian one as well that has supported their economy for many years.

 

Many of the Anglo-Indian dishes we enjoy today are a result of the inventive khansamas or what we would call cooks who were the creators of the Indian fusion food. The khansamas mostly cooked for private families and entertainment. They learned how to cook british dishes while working for the british upper class during the time of the Raj. Their cooking style was known as “Memsahib’s cooking” which is a hybrid form of cooking that originated when the british upper class would have there Indian household cooks prepare traditional english dishes which they would then prepare with their own indian specialties. They were blending European cooking techniques and recipes with local spices, ingredients and methods. Their dishes were inventive and eventually became the basis of restaurant or club cooking in India. Many khansamas worked in what were known as “clubs” so much of the indian clubs or restaurants today serve food inspired by the khansamas who cooked for the British during the time of the Raj. This style of memsahib cooking that developed out of the British Raj eventually became part of the daily cuisine throughout India. Many of the dishes we know of today like Chicken Tikka Masala came out of this style of cooking thanks to the khansamas.

 

Anglo-Indian food would not have made such an impact on both Britain and India without the British Raj. While there have been numerous political and social consequences rooted in this era, the exchange of food has opened the Western world to more vivacious tastes, and the Indian region to culinary basics like tea. This exchange is a perfect example of the influence of globalization on the world we know today.

 

“British Influence on Indian Food.” India Netzone, Jupiter Infomedia, www.indianetzone.com/39/british_influence_on_indian_food.htm.

 

“Origin of Tea.” BRAND INDIA PLANTATIONS, www.teacoffeespiceofindia.com/tea/tea-origin.

 

Kanjilal, Sucharita. “The Indian Curry Is Merely a Figment of the British Colonial Imagination.” Quartz, Quartz, 16 Mar. 2016, qz.com/639435/the-indian-curry-is-merely-a-figment-of-the-british-colonial-imagination/.

 

Kaul, Dr Chandrika. “History – British History in Depth: From Empire to Independence: The British Raj in India 1858-1947.” BBC, BBC, 3 Mar. 2011, www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/independence1947_01.shtml.

 

Shrivastava, Anuj. “British Influence on Indian Food.” INDIAN CUISINE ENCYCLOPEDIA, 25 Apr. 2012, indiancusineencylcopedia.blogspot.com/2012/04/british-influence-on-indian-food.html.

 

“East Meets West.” Anglo Indian Food, Upper Crust, www.uppercrustindia.com/ver2/showpage.php?postid=562.

Vishal, Anoothi. “Colonial Food Versus Indian Cuisine: The Play of Spices.” NDTV Food, NDTV Food, 15 Oct. 2017, food.ndtv.com/opinions/colonial-food-versus-indian-cuisine-the-play-of-spices-1288526.

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